• Reflection (M): Reflect simple plane figures in horizontal or vertical lines;
  • Rotation (R): Rotate simple plane figures about the origin, vertices or midpoints of edges of the figures, through multiples of 90°;
  • Enlargement (E) : Construct given translations and enlargements of simple plane figures;
  • Shear (H) &Stretch (S)
  • Their combinations (if M(a) = b and R(b) = c the notation RM(a) = c will be used;
  • Invariants under these transformations may be assumed.) Identify and give precise descriptions of transformations connecting given figures.
  • Describe transformations using co-ordinates and matrices (singular matrices are excluded).


  • The word” transformmeansto change.” In geometry, a transformation changes the position of a shape on a coordinate plane. That means a shape is moving from one place to another.
  • The original shape of the object is called the pre-image and the final shape and position of the object is the image under the transformation.

Isometry : Isometric transformation is a transformation that preserves congruence.  In other words,  a transformation in which the image and pre-image have the same side lengths and angle measurements.  The following transformations maintain their mathematical congruence Reflection (Flip) ,Translation (Slide), Rotation (Turn).